The Present Tense is used to indicate any action taking place in the present or happening right now. It is also used when an event happens or occurs regularly or continuously for an indefinite period and that is why it is also called Present Indefinite Tense. Examples – I am in good health. / She is a good girl. / He lives in Paris. / The School starts at 10 am.
Depending on the person concerned, the simple present tense is formed by using the root form of the verb or by adding '-s' or '-es' to the end of the verb.
Examples – I like the picture. (First Person singular). We like the picture (First Person plural). You like the picture (Second Person singular and plural). He likes the picture (Third Person singular). They like the picture (Third Person plural).
It is to be noted that, the verb ‘to be’ is irregular and is used as: I am (First Person singular). We are (First Person plural). You are (Second Person singular and plural). He/ She / It is (Third Person singular),.They are (Third Person plural).
If a verb ends in –y, the third person changes the -y to -ies. Example – Babies cry for milk. / The baby cries for milk. Exception: play>plays / pray > prays.
The present continuous tense is used for actions or events happening now or for an action or event that is continuing and is unfinished. This tense is also used when the action is temporary. The present continuous tense is formed by the subject plus the present tense of verb ‘be’ and the present particle form (-ing) of the main verb. Examples – The girls are playing Cricket on the School ground. / We are visiting the museum today.
Present continuous tense can be used to express something happening right at the moment of speaking or to express something that is not happening right now. Examples are – I am just going to leave my office now. / You are not watching the show. / Rosa is reading a book.
Present continuous tense can also be used to describe actions that are being repeated continuously. Examples – It is always raining in London. / My mother is constantly complaining about my keeping late hours at night. / The sisters are always fighting over the remote control of the television set.
Present continuous tense can be used for actions that are still continuing at the time of speaking. Examples – Pramila is talking on the phone right now. / My dad is going to office now. / She is baking cake for us.
Present continuous tense can also be used in questions as well. Examples – Are you going to watch the movie? / Are you listening to me?
Another use of the Present continuous tense is to speak about growing, changing or developing. Examples – Shopping online is growing in popularity in India. / The climate is changing very rapidly due to global warming.
The Present Perfect Tense is used to describe or indicate something that happened in the past and has a relationship with the present, but the exact time it happened is not important.
The Present Perfect of any verb is formed from the Present Tense of the verb ‘Have’ plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is the base verb +ed. In other words, Have/Has + past participle makes the present perfect. Examples – She has lost her watch. / I think She has gone for shopping.
The Present Perfect Tense is used to describe:
E. An action when the time is not important. Examples – I am unable to use my car, as I have misplaced the key. / I have finished ‘For whom the Bell Tolls’.
Also known as the Present Perfect Progressive Tense, the Present Perfect Continuous Tense speaks about some event of happening, that started in the past is still continuing at the present time. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used to describe about something continuous, which is not necessarily a finished action or situation, while the Present Perfect Tense is used to speak about a finished action or situation.
The present perfect continuous is formed using the construction has/have been + the present participle (base + -ing).